Grafting to areas of loss:
For example, following burn injuries and extensive de-gloving injuries of the of the legs.
Local flap reconstruction:
Local tissue can be used and transferred using flaps to restore soft tissue cover. These flaps are made more reliable in the lower limb by including the layer deep to the fat (fascia).
Regional flap reconstruction:
Reliable tissue can be transferred based on the vascular pedicles of the lower limb. This tissue is used to resurface areas of tissue loss. Areas of the outer thigh and groin are particularly good for the thigh.
Distant flap reconstruction:
Areas adjacent to the lower limb (e.g. the groin) can be used to resurface larger defects in the lower limb. These techniques may involve 2 staged operations.
Free flap reconstruction:
More complex defects require the use of free tissue transfer. This is where a reliable block of tissue is moved from one area to another and its blood supply is restored using microsurgical techniques.
Revascularisation and replantation:
Microsurgical reconstruction is used to restore a blood supply to a region when it has been divided (e.g. severed digit), or to restore blood flow when interrupted by trauma (e.g. crush injury).